Cyrus Kuhzarani, R.Phm.,
Compounding Pharmacist, co-founder of Pure Lab Vitamins
It is almost certain that you have heard or read some of the below in other publications,
but I find it important to list these strings of thought and facts to describe the importance of magnesium as a supplement or better the importance of supplementation all together.
For decades main stream medical recommendations on nutrients have been based on so-called RDA’s, Recommended Daily Allowances. Health authorities base their recommendations on these levels and alternative treatments surpassing these amounts are frowned at by main stream practitioners and heath authorities, even though these levels have hardly been updated in the last 40 years. Comments like: “You’ll flush it out anyways” or “too much Vitamin C causes kidney stones” are very common and simply false.
Then once in a while new research surfaces and all over sudden everybody jumps on the band wagon, as it is happening currently with intake recommendations on Vitamin D.
When testing the fruits and vegetables we can buy today, we find significantly lower amounts of contained nutrients, especially minerals, compared to 20 or 40 years ago.
Where should mass produced crops, grown on depleted soils even get these minerals from? Rain doesn’t bring back minerals and todays farmers, in their struggle to survive global markets, cannot afford to remineralize/fertilize the soils with broad spectrum minerals and trace elements. They only use lime, calcium carbonate/oxide/hydroxide, whenever the pH of the soil gets too acidic.
I dare to say that even organic crops, although better for us for numerous reasons, do not contain the minerals anymore that us humans require to deal with our environment and our life styles on a metabolic level.
There has been a gradual decline of dietary magnesium in the USA from a high of 500 mg/day, at the turn of the century, to barely 175-225 mg/day today (1). The National Academy of Science has determined that most Americans are magnesium-deficient, with men obtaining only about 80% of the probably already too low recommended daily allowance (RDA), and women averaging only 70% (2,3).
This means over time when receiving only 70 or 80% of the RDA on a daily basis, individuals are slowly running into Magnesium deficiency or even depletion.
1: The Magnesium Miracle, Dr. Carolyn Dean -
2: National Research Council. Recommended dietary allowances, 10th ed. Washington, DC:
National Academy Press, 1989:187-194.
3: Magnesium, PO Wester, MD, Am J Clin Nutr 1987;45:1305-12
Magnesium Deficiency Conditions:
Chronic Pain and Chronic Neuropathic Pain
To better understand the mechanisms of Chronic Pain, I would like to talk a bit about Chronic Pain Conduction:
The sensory system uses two kinds of fibers to transport pain information to the spinal cord and further up to the brain:
A-delta fibers: responsible for fast, acute pain, using so-called AMPA receptors
C fibers: responsible for slow, chronic pain, using so-called NMDA receptors
Differences in speed become apparent when the pain originates far away from the brain. Example: Stubbing your toe
Immediately after stubbing your toe, you feel the sharp, acute pain, which is pain information traveling on fast A-delta fibers. A little later the pain is perceived as dull, throbbing pain, when the pain information is re-routed over to C fibers, to keep the fast emergency lines free.
All C fibers use a specific receptor, called the NMDA receptor (N-methyl-D-aspartate).
The NMDA receptor is a sodium, potassium and calcium channel with binding sites for magnesium, right in the center of the channel and for L-Glycine, right on top.
Magnesium is “Nature’s physiological calcium blocker"(2).
As long as magnesium is occupying the channel, the receptor is in a “calm” state.
The magnesium block thus reduces the so-called Excitatory-Post-Synaptic Potential (EPSP) and plays an important role in preventing an over-responsiveness, that could result in “wind up pain”, Long Term Potentiation (LTP) and Allodynia(2).
Magnesium Glycinate, is the salt of the amino acid L-Glycine, which is one of the major inhibitory neurotransmitters in the mammalian CNS, predominantly active in the spinal cord and the brain stem. L-Glycine has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and direct cytoprotective properties on the gastrointestinal mucosa and most other membranes in the body (1).
L-Glycine also suppresses the agonist-induced opening of L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (NMDA Receptor) (1).
One study published in the Journal of Anaesthesiology, 2008, showed that elevated levels of Glycine had inhibitory influences on pain transmission on a spinal level (3).
Without a good supply of glycine, insufficient creatine will be produced biochemically to generate the phosphate needed for ATP production, the bodies energy molecule.
ATP is always present as a Magnesium - ATP complex. (If magnesium is available.)
Magnesium basically provides stability to ATP so that it can travel through the tissues to provide energy where it is needed .
Glycine was found to have the potential to increase growth hormone, shuttle toxic substances such as lactic acid out of the body, and calm the brain.
Athletes and active people have found L-Glycine, as part of a balanced amino acid formula, may help slow muscle-tissue breakdown and promote healing after intense workouts. Shown to both promote growth-hormone release and enhance cell volumizing, it appears to encourage muscle building and strength gains.
L-Glycine is the smallest of the 20 amino acids, and can be considered hydrophilic (water soluble) and hydrophobic (fat soluble), due to its single hydrogen atom side chain and overall small molecular size (5).
This amphi-philicity is one more reason for Mg-glycinate’s high absorbability and fantastic deep tissue availability.
Moreover, Dr. Sally Schuette, from the Gastroenteroly Dept. of the University of Chicago, was able to prove that Magnesium Glycinate, next to regular absorption by diffusion, was absorbed using active dipeptide transport mechanisms(4).
To summarize, Magnesium and L-Glycine work together, influencing the Ca-Channel in the NMDA receptor so that a pain stimulus cannot produce a response. If the pain stimulus continues, the following “depolarization” will move magnesium out of its designated space and the receptor will change into its excitatory state. Magnesium gets “washed out” and is ultimately lost.
This means, a chronic pain condition leads automatically into a magnesium deficiency and thus produces a vicious cycle. Magnesium deficiency supports excitatory states of the NMDA receptors by leaving Ca-Channels unoccupied. This would mean:
Magnesium deficiency amplifies pain!
1: L-Glycine: a novel anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and cytoprotective agent.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2003 Mar;6(2):229-40.
2: "Magnesium: Nature’s physiological calcium blocker," Am Heart J 108 (1984): 188-193.
L. Iseri, et al.,
3: Glycine transporter inhibitors as a potential therapeutic strategy for chronic pain with
Tanabe M, Takasu K, Yamaguchi S, Kodama D, Ono H. Anesthesiology. 2008
4: Schuette SA, Lashner BA, Janghorbani M (1994) Bioavailability of magnesium diglycinate
vs magnesium oxide in patients with ileal resection.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr 18: 430-435.
5: Solubility of amino acids in mixed solvent systems.?T. E. Needham Jr.*, A. N. Paruta,
R. J. Gerraughty, 10.1002/jps.2600600221, 2006
Magnesium is of fundamental importance to oxygen delivery and uptake (1), ATP - adenosine triphosphate production, stabilization and transport (2), regulation of muscle contraction and relaxation (3), and even the stability of the immune system (4).
Magnesium is also an important regulator of Calcium and cellular acidity (5), especially with magnesium bound to the amino acid L-Glycine, which is classified as an antacid by Health Canada.
Magnesium, L-Glycine and alkaline tissues counteract lactic acid build up and thus prevent sore muscles and spasms.
Muscle contractility and its tendency to spasm depends greatly on the relaxation phase, which is dependent on the pumping of Calcium back where it came from (sarcoplasmic reticulum of the muscle fiber). This pumping action requires both ATP and Magnesium(6).
A rather recent study from 2008 shows that alkalization accompanied by increased Magnesium levels produced higher levels of ATP (Energy) (7).
Magnesium imbalance can result from a number of mechanisms and combinations thereof:
Prescription drugs especially diuretics, corticosteroids, estrogens and some birth control
drugs, some antibiotics, some beta-blockers and also
some Angiotensin II Receptor blockers (ARB’s)
Low dietary intake our food simply does not contain sufficient amounts of Magnesium
Caffeine and Alcohol augment urinary excretion, which can lead to Magnesium depletion.
Sweat loss in active individuals and athletes
All of the above states, that low Magnesium levels can lead to muscle weakness and cramping in smooth or skeletal muscles (8).
Using prescription drugs like Quinine Sulfate, might give you symptom relieve, but does not fix the problem, which is usually a magnesium and/or potassium deficiency.
Why would anybody use a drug, indicated for Malaria Treatment, with a lot of potential side effects, only to cover up a symptom, if the solution is clearly related to the lack of a nutrient?
1: Lukaski HC, Bolonchuk WW, Klevay LM, Milne DB, and Sandstead HH. Maximal oxygen
consumption as related to magnesium, copper and zinc nutriture.
Am J Clin Nutr 37: 407–415, 1983.
2: Hasselbach W, Fassold E, Migala A, and Rauch B. Magnesium dependence of sarcoplasmic
reticulum calcium transport. Fed Proc 40: 2657–2661, 1981.
3: In vivo assessment of Mg2+ in human brain and skeletal muscle by 31P-MRS.
Lotti S and Malucelli E., Magnes Res 21: 157–162, 2008.
4: Possible roles of magnesium on the immune system.
Tam M, Gomez S, Gonzalez-Gross M, and Marcos A.
Euro J Clin Nutr 57: 1193–1197, 2003.
5: Elsden S. Magnesium and muscle respiration. Biochem J 33: 1890–1894,1939.
6: Gordon A, Homsher E, Regnier M. Regulation of contraction in striated muscle.
Physiol Rev 80: 853–924, 2000.
7: Michailova A and McCulloch AD. Effects of Mg2+, pH and PCr on cardiac excitation
metabolic coupling. Magnes Res 21: 16–28, 2008.
8: Rayssiguier Y, Guezennec CY, and Durlach J. New experimental and clinical data on the
relationship between magnesium and sport. Magnes Res 3: 93–102, 1990.
Magnesium is often referred to as the "antistress" mineral. It is a kind of natural tranquilizer. While calcium stimulates muscle contraction, magnesium relaxes them. Magnesium also dilates blood vessels. (see Blood pressure)(1)
Since stress is one of the biggest migraine triggers, this role by itself is important. But magnesium does more, helping to prevent migraines both directly and indirectly:
Magnesium is an alkaline mineral necessary for EVERY major biochemical process, including: production and transfer of energy, metabolism of proteins, fats and carbohydrates.
Both of these are necessary for the healthy functioning of the brain.
Serotonin balance is magnesium-dependent. Deficiency of serotonin can result in migraine headaches and depression.
It is also vital for proper functioning of the nervous system -- clearly important in migraine prevention -- as well as for the functioning of the heart, and for muscle and bone strength.
Magnesium is also a calcium blocker, which gives it a central role in brain chemistry, chronic pain and preventing a migraine.
These are major reasons why successful migraine treatments must include sufficient magnesium for the body.(2)
The journal “Magnesium Research” reported on a study with migraine patients without aura. Patients were given either a 600mg magnesium supplement, or a placebo. The researchers used a number of techniques, including brain mapping and measurement of migraine attack frequency and severity (3,4)
Researchers found two interesting things.
First, the patients with migraine while on magnesium actually did have fewer and less severe attacks.
Secondly, there was an increase in blood flow to certain parts of the brain in these patients.
1: Lotti S and Malucelli E. In vivo assessment of Mg2+ in human brain and skeletal muscle
by 31P-MRS. Magnes Res 21: 157–162, 2008.
2: "Magnesium: Nature’s physiological calcium blocker,"
Am Heart J 108 (1984): 188-193. L. Iseri, et al.,
3: Peikert A, Wilimzig C & Kohne-Volland R: Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium:
results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized
study. Cephalagia 1996; 16:257-263. ?
4: Taubert K: Magnesium in migraine. Results of a multicenter pilot study (German).
Fortschr Med 1994; 112(24):328-330. ?
Fibromyalgia / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
Older and recent studies have shown that individuals with fibromyalgia have low levels of magnesium in the blood cells, thus also in the tissues. This can contribute to the fatigue experienced in FMS and CFS patients. Magnesium-deficient patients commonly experience fatigue because dozens of enzyme systems are under-functioning (1,2,3).
- is a cofactor in ATP production (5) and forms a stabile ATP-Mg complex that speeds up
metabolic pathways (4)
- modulates Oxygen transport into the tissues (7)
- is required for many oxidation-reduction and phosphorylation reactions, such as creatine
phosphokinase, which acts as an ATP regenerator (5,6)
All of these reactions are crucial to energy production.
The commonly described myofascial trigger points in fibromyalgia seem to me as areas in severe metabolic lock down. These trigger points seize up and can become very hard.
You can sometimes feel these knuckles through the skin.
They radiate pain into surrounding muscular areas, because they are contracted so hard that they are technically cut off from blood supply. Just like the coronaries of the heart muscle during contraction, only that these trigger points do not have a diastolic phase / relaxation phase. This means they do not receive sufficient blood, nutrients and oxygen, and they also cannot get rid of their metabolic waste.
Patients on high dose magnesium report a warming sensation in exactly these areas, which I explain with increased blood flow into these previously blood empty regions.
Moreover, many of these patients complain of increased head aches in the beginning of magnesium therapy, which could be explained with the increased release of metabolic waste into circulation.
Our Magnesium Glycinate has helped many of my FM/CFS clients.
A fantastic article by Mark London can be found here:
1: Moorkens G, Manuel y Keenoy B, Vertommen J, et al. Magnesium deficit in a sample of the
Belgian population presenting with chronic fatigue. Magnes Res 1997;10:329-37.
2: Ng SY. Hair calcium and magnesium levels in patients with fibromyalgia: a case center
study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22:586-93.
3: Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome?IM Cox, MJ Campbell, D Dowson -
The Lancet, 1991 - Elsevier
4: A connection between magnesium deficiency and aging: new insights from cellular
studies.?Killilea DW, Maier JA., Magnes Res. 2008 Jun;21(2):77-82.
5: Effects of pH and free Mg2+ on the Keq of the creatine kinase reaction and other
phosphate hydrolyses and phosphate transfer reactions.
Lawson JW, Veech RL. J Biol Chem. 1979 Jul 25;254(14):6528-37.
6: Magnesium homeostasis during high-intensity anaerobic exercise in men.
Deuster PA, Dolev E, Kyle SB, Anderson RA, Schoomaker EB.
J Appl Physiol. 1987 Feb;62(2):545-50.
7: Molecular components of vertebrate Mg2+-homeostasis regulation.?Schmitz C, Deason F,
Perraud AL. Magnes Res. 2007 Mar;20(1):6-18.
Constipation is one of the most common digestive complaints in North America. The normal frequency of bowel movements varies widely from person to person, from once or more a day to three times a week. In general, however, you are likely constipated if you pass a hard, dry stool less than three times a week.
Constipation can also make you feel bloated and uncomfortable and you may find yourself straining during bowel movements. From a detoxification point of view, daily bowel movements have clear benefits.
Moreover, a constipated gut will not absorb nutrients as well either.
A magnesium deficiency will contribute to constipation (2). Magnesium is found naturally in foods such as green leafy vegetables, nuts, seeds, and whole grains and in supplements, but as discussed earlier probably in insufficient amounts.
Magnesium is needed for normal muscle function, including intestinal muscles.
One recent study examined the intake of magnesium with constipation in 3835 women. Low magnesium intake was associated with constipation (2).
Although laxatives may be an effective treatment for occasional, acute episodes of constipation, prolonged use can affect intestinal contractions (peristaltic). As a result, frequent use of laxatives may lead into a vicious cycle, due to mineral/magnesium losses, and that way straight into the development of chronic constipation.
1: Therapeutic uses of Magnesium?Guerrera MP, Volpe SL, Mao JJ.
Am Fam Physician. 2009 Jul 15;80(2):157-62. Review.
2: Association between dietary fiber, water and magnesium intake and functional constipation
among young Japanese women.Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 May;61(5):616-22. Epub 2006
Restless Leg Syndrome:
Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that occurs in almost 10% of the population today. The cause of RLS is not fully understood, but there are a few things that can be done to ease the symptoms.
One thing researchers do know is that low magnesium levels correlate with a higher rate of RLS symptoms.(1)
Magnesium is an essential element that provides relief from RLS and strengthens the neurological system. It also supports the nervous system, and helps to carry out everyday tasks and activities. A lack of magnesium in the body has been known to be one of the leading causes of RLS.
Magnesium is perhaps one of the most essential minerals in the body.
Doctors worldwide prescribe doses of calcium over magnesium, without realizing that it is most essential to maintain a balance of these vital elements in the body. There are various journals and papers all over the world that advocate the need for calcium, but what happens if you focus only on one side of a balanced system?
You create imbalance!
Other tips are:
- Decreased use of caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco may provide some relief.
- Maintaining a regular sleep pattern can reduce symptoms.
Some individuals, finding that RLS symptoms are minimized in the early morning, change
their sleep patterns.
- Regular moderate exercise helps to sleep better; on the other hand, excessive exercise
has been reported by some patients to aggravate RLS symptoms.
- Taking a hot bath (use 4 cups [1kg] of Epsom Salt per bath tub), massaging the legs,
- Using a heating pad or ice pack can help relieve symptoms in some patients. Although
many patients find some relief with such measures, rarely do these efforts completely
1: Nocturnal leg cramps.?Allen RE, Kirby KA. Am Fam Physician. 2012 Aug 15;86(4):350-5.
2: Treatment of restless legs syndrome: an evidence-based review and implications for
clinical practice.?Mov Disord. 2008 Dec 15;23(16):2267-302.?Trenkwalder C, Hening WA,
Montagna P, Oertel WH, Allen RP, Walters AS, Costa J, Stiasny-Kolster K, Sampaio C.
3: Intravenous magnesium sulfate may relieve restless legs syndrome in pregnancy.
J Clin Sleep Med. 2006 Apr 15;2(2):187-8. Bartell S, Zallek S.
Diabetes, Blood Pressure, Metabolic Syndrome
Magnesium enhances insulin secretion. Without magnesium insulin is not able to transfer glucose into cells. Then Glucose and Insulin build up in the blood, causing various types of damage.
Researchers have found that low levels of magnesium worsens the symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes, as this often results in low levels of insulin and elevated blood sugar. The research also indicates that a diabetic’s ability to control blood sugar levels is closely tied to their magnesium levels.
So there is a strong relationship between magnesium and insulin action. But magnesium is also important for the effectiveness of insulin. A reduction of magnesium in the cells supports insulin resistance. Low serum and intracellular magnesium concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and decreased insulin secretion.(1,2,3,4,5)
The deficient patient could show normal or low normal plasma levels, but is is the intracellular magnesium concentration, that is of importance for intracellular mechanisms.
Intracellular magnesium has “shown to be effective in modulating insulin action (mainly oxidative glucose metabolism), offset calcium-related excitation-contraction coupling, and decrease smooth cell responsiveness to depolarizing stimuli.
In other words, magnesium improves energy production from sugar, counteracts calcium’s contracting properties on smooth and skeletal muscles, counteracts the development of exaggerated intracellular calcium concentrations.(6)
Magnesium improves and helps correct insulin sensitivity, which is the fundamental defect that characterizes pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome and even full-blown diabetes and heart disease. An intracellular enzyme called tyrosine kinase requires magnesium to allow insulin to exert its blood-sugar-lowering effects. In several studies, daily oral magnesium supplementation substantially improved insulin sensitivity by 10 percent and reduced blood sugar by 37 percent.(7,8)
In conclusion, Magnesium Deficiency can have a huge impact on glucose metabolism, insulin efficacy and insulin levels; and with that, cause high blood sugar, high cholesterol, increased inflammation and platelet adhesiveness, leading into increased plaque formation, increased vascular tightness and elevated blood pressure, ...
all factors of metabolic syndrome.
1: Paolisso G, Scheen A, D ‘Onofrio F, Lefebvre P: Magnesium and glucose homeostasis. Diabetologia 33:511–514, 1990 [Medline].
2: Nadler JL, Buchanan T, Natarajan R, Antonipillai I, Bergman R, Rude R: Magnesium deficiency produces insulin resistance and increased thromboxane synthesis. Hypertension 21:1024–1029, 1993.
3: Ma J, Folsom AR, Melnick SL, Eckfeldt JH, Sharrett AR, Nabulsi AA, Hutchinson RG, Metcalf PA: Associations of serum and dietary magnesium with cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, insulin, and carotid wall thickness: the ARIC study. J Clin Epidemiol 48:927–940, 1985.
4: Rosolova H, Mayer O Jr, Reaven GM: Insulin-mediated glucose disposal is decreased in normal subjects with relatively low plasma magnesium concentrations. Metabolism 49:418–420, 2000 [Medline].
5: Resnick LM, Gupta RK, Gruenspan H, Alderman MH, Laragh JH: Hypertension and peripheral insulin resistance: possible mediating role of intracellular free magnesium. Am J Hypertens 3:373–379, 1990 [Medline].
6: Mol Aspects Med. 2003 Feb-Jun;24(1-3):39-52. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndromeX. Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, Ferlisi A, Cani C, Malfa L, Pineo A, Busardo’ A, Paolisso G. Institute of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, University of Palermo, Via F Scaduto 6/C, Palermo, Italy. email@example.com.
7: Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab. 2004 Jun;30(3):253-8.
8: Rodriguez-Moran M and Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care. 2003 Apr;26(4):1147-52.
Think of magnesium as the body’s relaxer - of muscle and mind.
Magnesium suppresses the release of catecholamines, which stimulate. This means magnesium deficiency leads into more stimulation = less relaxation.
Add to that stress and you are in trouble.
When a person feels stressed, hormones signal the cells to release magnesium into the blood. From there, the mineral is excreted in urine. The more stressed a person becomes the more magnesium is lost from the body.
Sleep deprivation itself is a chronic stressor that can lower magnesium levels. (1)
Melatonin is a hormone synthesized by a small structure in the middle of the brain, called the pineal gland. Melatonin is released into the bloodstream from the pineal gland when triggered by periods of darkness or episodes of reduced sunshine. Levels are highest about 45 minutes before bedtime.
Sleep-regulating melatonin production is disturbed without sufficient magnesium. (2)
Insufficient levels of magnesium can inhibit the conversion of tryptophan to 5-HTP, which can affect the production of serotonin and melatonin. Research suggests that magnesium depletion may be associated with the dysregulation of the biological clock, resulting from either an increase or a decrease in melatonin (3).
the L-Glycine portion of Magnesium Glycinate has numerous beneficial health effects, as discussed above. It can be considered an anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and has direct cytoprotective properties on the gastrointestinal mucosa. It is important for DNA and RNA production, is part of creatine and collagen, regulates blood sugar levels, assists in the production of bile, as an antacid it regulates the acid-base ratio of the digestive tract,
but it is best known for its calming effects on our nervous system.
It effects the production of neurotransmitters, thus maintaining normal brain function and improves subjectively and objectively measures of sleep quality (4,5).
Once again we see that Magnesium and L-Glycine work together.
1: Erythrocyte magnesium and prostaglandin dynamics in chronic sleep deprivation.?Clin Cardiol. 1997 Mar;20(3):265-8.?Tanabe K, Osada N, Suzuki N, Nakayama M, Yokoyama Y, Yamamoto A, Oya M, Murabayashi T, Yamamoto M, Omiya K, Itoh H, Murayama M.
2: The effect of melatonin, magnesium, and zinc on primary insomnia in long-term care facility residents in Italy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Rondanelli M, Opizzi A, Monteferrario F, Antoniello N, Manni R, Klersy C.
J Am Geriatr Soc. 2011 Jan;59(1):82-90. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03232.x.
3: Biorhythms and possible central regulation of magnesium status, phototherapy, darkness therapy and chronopathological forms of magnesium depletion.
Durlach J, Pagès N, Bac P, Bara M, Guiet-Bara A.
Magnes Res. 2002 Mar;15(1-2):49-66.
4: New therapeutic strategy for amino acid medicine: glycine improves the quality of sleep.
Bannai M, Kawai N., J Pharmacol Sci. 2012;118(2):145-8. Epub 2012 Jan 27.
5: "Sleep and Biological Rhythms"; Glycine ingestion improves subjective sleep quality in human volunteers, correlating with polysomnographic changes; W. Yamadera et al.; April 2007
Other conditions where Magnesium Glycinate could help:
(Soon to be updated)
Osteoporosis - Use of calcium with Vitamin D to enhance calcium absorption without a balancing amount of magnesium causes further magnesium deficiency which triggers a cascade of events leading to bone loss.
Raynaud's Syndrome - Magnesium helps relax the spastic blood vessels that cause the reduced circulation, pain and numbness of the fingers.
Anxiety and Panic attacks - Magnesium normally keeps adrenal stress hormones under control.
Asthma - Both histamine production and bronchial spasms increase with magnesium deficiency.
Blood Clots - Magnesium has an important role to play in preventing blood clots and keeping the blood thin-much like aspirin but without the side effects.
Cystitis - Bladder spasms are worsened by magnesium deficiency.
Depression - Serotonin, which elevates moods, is dependent on magnesium.
A magnesium-deficient brain is also more susceptible to allergens, foreign substances that can cause symptoms similar to mental illness.
Nerve Problems - Magnesium alleviates peripheral nerve disturbances throughout the whole body, such as migraines, muscle contractions, gastrointestinal spasms, and calf, foot and toe cramps. It is also used in treating central nervous symptoms of vertigo and confusion.
Obstetrics and Gynecology - Magnesium prevents Premenstrual Syndrome; prevents dysmenorrhea (cramping pain during menses); is important in the treatment of infertility; and alleviates premature contractions, preeclampsia, and eclampsia in pregnancy. Intravenous magnesium is given in obstetrical wards for pregnancy-induced hypertension and to lessen the risk of cerebral palsy and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Magnesium should be a required supplement for pregnant mothers.
Tooth Decay - Magnesium deficiency causes an unhealthy balance of phosphorus and calcium in saliva which damages teeth. Drugs such as pain killers, diuretics, antibiotics and cortisone, many of which are inappropriately used for the above conditions, further deplete magnesium and other minerals, allowing symptoms to get completely out of control.
Surgery, malnutrition, third-degree burns, serious injuries, pancreatic inflammation, liver disease, malabsorption disorders, diabetes, hormonal imbalance, and cancer are all seriously stressful medical conditions requiring increased amounts of magnesium.